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Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and diabetic retinopathy: a meta-analysis

  • Jason Zhang
    Affiliations
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
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  • Sikarin Upala
    Correspondence
    Correspondence to Sikarin Upala, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Bassett Medical Center, 1 Atwell Rd, Cooperstown, NY
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine, Bassett Medical Center, Cooperstown, NY

    Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
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  • Anawin Sanguankeo
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine, Bassett Medical Center, Cooperstown, NY

    Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
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Published:January 10, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2016.10.004

      Abstract

      Objective

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evidence for an association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vitamin D deficiency.

      Design

      Meta-analysis.

      Methods

      We included 14 observational studies with 10 007 participants who had undergone assessment for both DR and vitamin D deficiency. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effect, Mantel–Haenszel analysis.

      Results

      There was a statistically significant association between DR and vitamin D deficiency with an overall pooled OR of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.17–1.37; P = 0.001; I2 = 80%; Pheterogeneity = 0.01). There was also a statistically significant lower serum vitamin D level in patient subgroups with DR versus control groups, with an overall mean difference of –1.32 ng/mL (95% CI, –2.50 to –0.15; P = 0.001; I2 = 89%; Pheterogeneity = 0.01).

      Conclusion

      There is a statistically significant association between vitamin D deficiency and DR.

      RÉSUMÉ

      Objet

      Vérifier l’existence d’un lien entre la rétinopathie diabétique et la carence en vitamine D.

      Méthodes

      On a procédé à la méta-analyse de 14 études d’observation réunissant 10 007 participants soumis à un dépistage de la rétinopathie diabétique et d’une carence en vitamine D. Les rapports de cotes (RC) et les intervalles de confiance (IC) à 95 % groupés ont été calculés au moyen d’un modèle à effets aléatoires de Mantel-Haenszel.

      Résultats

      Il existe une corrélation statistiquement significative entre la carence en vitamine D et la rétinopathie diabétique, les RC groupés s’établissant à 1,27 (IC à 95 %: 1,17 à 1,37; p = 0,001; I² = 80 %; valeur de p pour l’hétérogénéité = 0,01). Par ailleurs, le taux sérique de vitamine D était significativement inférieur sur le plan statistique dans les sous-groupes atteints de rétinopathie diabétique que dans les groupes témoins, l’écart moyen global s’inscrivant à -1,32 ng/mL (IC à 95 %: -2,50 à -0,15; p = 0,001; I² = 89 %; valeur de p pour l’hétérogénéité = 0,01).

      Conclusions

      Il existe bel et bien une corrélation statistiquement significative entre la carence en vitamine D et la rétinopathie diabétique.
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