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Anxiety, depression, and sleep-related outcomes of glaucoma patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

Published:March 16, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2022.02.010

      Abstract

      Objective

      This study aims to synthesize data quantifying the prevalence and severity of common psychological conditions in patients with glaucoma.

      Design

      Systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Methods

      Databases including Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Open Grey, and ProQuest Theses and dissertations were searched. Two reviewers independently assessed and screened all studies, followed by quality assessment of included studies using the modified Downs and Black checklist. Data were pooled using fixed-effect and random-effects models.

      Results

      Of 2067 studies identified by the search strategy, 57 passed full-text screening, and 45 studies (4 995 538 subjects) were eligible for analysis. Overall, the prevalence of depression (effect size [ES] = 0.19, 95% CI 0.16–0.23; n = 31), anxiety (ES = 0.25, 95% CI 0.21–0.30; n = 18), and sleep disorders (ES = 0.47, 95% CI 0.26–0.68; n = 7) were high in patients with glaucoma. Similarly, symptomatic measurements of depression (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.46, 95% CI 0.19–0.73), anxiety (SMD = 0.44, 95% CI 0.08–0.81), and sleep quality (SMD = 0.72, 95% CI 0.22–1.21) were significant in glaucoma patients.

      Conclusions

      A higher prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders was experienced in patients with glaucoma compared with patients without glaucoma. Caregivers as well as health care providers may need to be aware of unique psychological and social stressors placed on glaucoma patients.
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