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Characteristics of pediatric open globe injuries in preschool-aged and school-aged children

Published:November 08, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2022.10.013

      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric open globe injuries in preschool- and school-aged children.

      Method

      Medical records of 93 children were reviewed. Patients were categorized in 2 groups: preschool-aged group (0–7 years) and school-aged group (8–15 years). Demographic data, characteristics of trauma, Ocular Trauma Score (OTS), and initial and final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded and compared between groups.

      Results

      The preschool-aged group consisted of 54 patients (mean age 4.6 ± 1.8 years), and the school-aged group consisted of 39 patients (mean age 11.5 ± 2.7 years). Most of the injuries were penetrating and caused by nonmetalic sharp objects in both groups. A corneal injury was detected in 45 patients (83.3%) in the preschool-aged group and 29 patients (74.4%) in school-aged group. Localization of the corneal wound was mostly central (46.7%) in the preschool-aged group and peripheral (48.3%) in school-aged group (p = 0.045). Mean corneal wound length was significantly longer in the preschool-aged group (p = 0.018). Most of the cases in the preschool-aged group were OTS group 2 (50%), whereas most of the cases in the school-aged group were OTS group 3 (38.5%). Poor visual outcome was significantly correlated with the following factors in both groups: lower OTS, worse initial BCVA, central corneal wound, longer corneal and total wound length, and presence of lens damage, retinal detachment, and hypotonia (p < 0.05 for all). Poor final BCVA also was significantly correlated with a longer scleral wound in the school-aged group and the presence of vitreous hemorrhage and uveal tissue prolapse in the posterior segment in the preschool-aged group (p < 0.05).

      Conclusions

      Localization and length of the corneal wound is closely associated with visual outcome in children with open globe injuries. Especially in preschool-aged children, mostly central localization of a corneal wound can be a challenging factor for visual rehabilitation.
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