Original Article|Articles in Press

Ganglion cell complex changes in wet AMD patients treated with anti-VEGF intravitreal injections according to a treat-and-extend protocol

Published:December 16, 2022DOI:



      To analyze changes in ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients receiving intravitreal injections.


      Retrospective cohort study involving 46 eyes at a single tertiary ophthalmology practice.


      The injection group consisted of wet AMD patients who received intravitreal injections for at least 3 years following a treat-and-extend protocol. Twenty-two patients received ranibizumab, and 1 patient received aflibercept. The control group consisted of dry AMD patients who were observed only and did not receive medical treatment over the same period. GCC thickness and visual acuity were recorded at baseline and at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up visits.


      In the injection group, there was a nonsignificant trend toward reduction in GCC thickness over 3 years (–4.09 ± 8.47 µm; p = 0.09). Within the injection group, correlation analysis between the number of intravitreal injections and GCC thickness was nonsignificant but trended toward a direct relationship, with more injections correlated with a relatively thicker GCC at 3 years. There was no significant change in GCC thickness between baseline and year 3 for the control group.


      Study results suggest that that there is no significant GCC thinning in wet AMD patients following a treat-and-extend regimen over 3 years.
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