A 12-year-old female presented with left exotropia for 1 year. The left eye fundus revealed dilation and tortuosity of the retinal arteries and veins consistent with group 3 retinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM; Fig. 1A). Fundus fluorescein angiography showed AVM filling without leakage but with a temporal nonperfusion area (Fig. 1B). Magnetic resonance angiogram of the head and cerebral angiography showed left orbital and suprasellar AVMs (Fig. 1C, D). The patient was diagnosed with Wyburn–Mason syndrome. No treatment was recommended for the intracranial AVMs because of the associated surgical risk to the perforators and the visual pathway.
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Published online: December 17, 2022
Accepted: November 28, 2022
Received: November 7, 2022
Publication stageIn Press Corrected Proof
© 2022 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Canadian Ophthalmological Society.