- Murine typhus is an acute infection transmitted by rodent or cat fleas carrying gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia typhi. This vector for transmission is most often carried on rodents, but opossums are thought to be a reservoir in suburban settings.1 Associated with overcrowding, pollution, and poor hygiene, murine typhus has been documented worldwide, but the majority of cases in the United States are in Texas and California.2
- Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) autoantibody syndrome produces symptoms and signs related to loss of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid. Patients with GAD antibody may present with hyperexcitability disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, limbic encephalitis, and nystagmus. There has been only one previous report of convergence spasm in a patient with GAD antibody. Here we present a case of convergence spasm and, to our knowledge, the first case in the English-language ophthalmic literature to have concomitant horizontal nystagmus, in a patient with anti-GAD65 antibody syndrome.
- Spontaneous internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection is a significant cause of ischemic stroke in young adults1. The presenting symptoms and signs of ICA dissection (ICAD) are variable and can be due to direct local involvement of neural structures (e.g., oculosympathetic plexus causing the ipsilateral Horner syndrome) or indirect distal ischemia to brain or eye (e.g., transient ischemic attack or stroke) from thromboembolic disease 23. Transient monocular visual loss (TMVL) and the Horner syndrome are well-known presentations of ICAD and may occur in up to 50% of cases 4.