Optic nerve giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complexThe retinal astrocytic hamartoma is a hallmark ophthalmic feature of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).1 The typical course of such tumours is a relatively slow-growing nonaggressive lesion in the retina that can be managed expectantly.2 Nonetheless, there have been several reports in the literature of aggressive astrocytic hamartomas that do not demonstrate this benign course.3 We present here a rare case of an aggressive tumour in a patient with TSC that has cell types more typical of the subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) that is seen in the brains of such patients.
Acute orbital sarcoidosis with preceding fever and erythema nodosumA 53-year-old previously healthy Caucasian male presented to an emergency department with fever, well-circumscribed tender erythematous nodules of the shins, bilateral plantar pain, and bilateral ankle swelling and pain of 1-week duration. He was discharged without a diagnosis and his symptoms began to spontaneously resolve over the next 3 days. A month later, he developed new diplopia, left lower eyelid swelling, and a palpable orbital lump.
Primary localized orbital amyloid: case report and literature review; 2004-2015Amyloid fibril protein is a protein that is deposited as insoluble fibrils, mainly in extracellular spaces of organs and tissues as a resrult of a sequence of changes in protein folding.1 By definition, amyloid must exhibit both affinity for Congo red and green birefringence when samples that are stained with Congo red are viewed under polarized light.1 It can accumulate in all body tissues, including the brain, skin, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, heart, spleen, soft tissues, and ocular and orbital tissues.
Glucose transporter isoform-1 receptor–positive infantile capillary hemangiomas: case report and literature reviewA previously healthy 4-month-old child presented with a right-sided medial canthal subcutaneous mass that was present for 2 weeks (Fig. 1). Parents stated it had been growing in size since it appeared, and there was tearing from this eye. Clinically, location and discolouration gave the appearance of a dacryocystocele; however, the lesion was firm and appeared adherent to the bone. The ocular examination was otherwise normal. Probing of the nasolacrimal duct showed free flow into the nose and did not decompress the lesion.
Delayed lymph node metastasis of excised caruncular sebaceous carcinoma in an atypical demographicSebaceous cell carcinoma is a rare tumour that accounts for 1% to 5% of malignant eyelid tumours in white populations.1 However, in East and South Asian populations in which basal cell carcinoma is less frequent, sebaceous cell carcinoma is more frequent. A recent review of malignant eyelid tumours in Western Kowloon, Hong Kong, reported that 11.1% of their tumours were sebaceous cell carcinoma.2 It originates in meibomian glands and glands of Zeis.3 Most commonly found on the upper and lower eyelids, it can masquerade as chronic unilateral blepharitis, recurrent chalazia, basal cell carcinoma, or sebaceous cell carcinoma.